Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam, and it is a very important form of worship.
Hajj is a worship in which a person, during the days of Hajj, being in the state of Ihram, goes to appointed places at appointed times and remembers Allah through designated activities (أعمال).
Hajj is mandatory on every Muslim who is sane, has reached the age of puberty and has the financial capability of performing Hajj. A woman should also have the financial capability of taking a Mahram (legal male guardian) along with her on the Hajj trip to make Hajj mandatory on her.
There are three months of Hajj: Shawwal, Zul-Qaidah, and Zul-Hijja.
These months are called أشهر حج (Months of Hajj).
However, the days for performing the obligatory acts of Hajj are the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th, of Zul-Hijja. (Tentatively corresponding to July 18 to July 22, 2021).
These five days are called أيام الحج (Days of Hajj)
There are three types of Hajj: Ifrad, Tamattu, and Qiran.
1) Ifrad (إفراد)-A person doing Hajj Ifrad can not perform Umrah before his or her Hajj within the Months of Hajj. Doing Qurbani/Hady is not Wabjib in Hajj Ifrad, but is recommended.
2) Tamattu (تمتع)-A person doing Hajj Tamattu must perform an Umrah in the Months of Hajj before Hajj and then become Halal (come out of the state of Ihram). Then the person must re-enter the state of Ihram during the Days of Hajj to perform Hajj with the intention of doing Hajj.1
3) Qiran (قران)-A person doing Hajj Qiran must perform Umrah before the Hajj, within the Months of Hajj, while being in one Ihram, i.e. not becoming Halal after the Umrah.1
1 According to Hanafi Madhhab, the people resident of Makkah and the Hill area can not do this type of Hajj.
There are three Faraidh of Hajj, skipping any one of them invalidates your Hajj completely.
1) Ihram (احرام) - To recite the Talbiyah with the intention of doing Hajj.
2) Stay in Arafat (وقوف عرفة)- Spending a moment, while in the state of Ihram, within the boundaries of Arafat, between the Dhuhar of the 9th of Zul-Hijja until the Fajr of the 10th of Zul-Hijja
3) Tawaf Ziyarah (طواف زيارة) -Doing a Tawaf between the Fajr of the 10th of Zul-Hijja and the Maghrib of the 12th of Zul-Hijja.
The Wajibat of Hajj are listed below. Neglecting to perform anyone of them requires a Kaffara to complete ones Hajj
1) Stay in Muzdalifa (وقوف مزدلفة)-It is necessary to stay in Muzdalifa from the Fajr (dawn) until the sunrise of the 10th of Zul-Hijja. It is sunnah to stay in Muzdalifah from the sunset of the 9th of Zul-Hijja to the sunrise of the 10th of Zul-Hijja.
2) Rami Al-Jimar (رمي الجمار)-One must throw pebbles at only the Jamara-al-Aqaba (big Jamarah) on the 10th of Zul-Hijja and throw pebbles at all three Jamarat on the 11th and 12th of Zul-Hijja.
3) Hady/Qurbani (قرباني/هادي)- For those doing Hajj Qiran or Hajj Tamattu, they must do Qurbani/Hady (slaughter an animal) between the Fajr of the 10th of Zul-Hijja and the Asr of the 13th of Zul-Hijja1.
4) Spending the Night in Mina (مبيت منى)-One must spend the majority portion of the nights following the days of the 10th and 11th of Zul-Hijja in Mina2.
5) Shaving/Trimming (حلق/قصر)- Getting out of the state of Ihram after shaving or trimming the hair on ones head.
6) Saee (سعي)-One must circuit between Safa and Marwa seven times after having completed the Tawaf Ziyarah.
7) Tawaf Widaa (طواف الوداع)- One must do a Tawaf before leaving Makkah and after having completed Tawaf Ziyarah.
1 For Hanafi Madhhab, the time is up to the Asr of the 12th of Zul-Hijja.
2 This is not Wajib in Hanafi Madhhab
The literal meaning of Ihram to make something Haram (forbidden). When a person with the intention of either Hajj, Umrah, or Hajj and Umrah recites the Talbiya, then some things, which were Halal, now become Haram for that person; the person has entered into the state of Ihram. Many people ambiguously call the two white towels Ihram; these are the clothes of Ihram for men and are not the Ihram in themselves.
There are two requirements of Ihram.
1) A person should enter into the state of Ihram before before their Miqaat.
2)The person must not do what is prohibited in Ihram.
The following things are prohibited and become Haram in Ihram. Violation of these requires Kaffara.
- Using perfume or fragranced items
- Wearing garments that are tailored to the human form(for Men only)
- Covering the head or face (for Men only)
- Trimming, shaving or plucking any hair on the body
- Trimming and/or filing ones nails
- Marrying or proposing for marriage
- Having sexual intercourse
The Ihram for women is the same as that for men with the exception of the following:
- It is Wajib for her to cover hear head.
- She cannot wear a veil that touches her face. However, she should hide her face in front of non-Mahrams.
- She can wear tailored clothes
You need to have the intention of getting out of the state of Ihram and you need to do Halaq or Qasr.
Talbiya is the recitation of the dua below with the intention of doing Hajj, Umrah, or Hajj and Umrah.
Tawaf & Saee
Tawaf means to go around something. In the context of Hajj and Umrah, Tawaf means to go around the Kaaba seven times.
There are three Faraidh (obligatory acts) of Tawaf. If one does not do any one of them, the Tawaf will not be counted and must be repeated.
- To do the majority of the laps/rounds of the Tawaf (more than three and a half)
- To do the Tawaf outside of the Kaaba and inside Masjid-a-Haram
- To do the Tawaf yourself, even if you need to use a wheelchair or other form of assistance
If any of the Wajibat of Tawaf are not done, the Tawaf needs to be repeated or a Kaffara needs to be done
- One must be clean (Taharat)
- One must have his or her Satar covered
- Those who can walk must do the Tawaf on foot.
- Go around the Kaaba in the counter-clockwise direction
- One must go around the Hateem
- Complete all seven rounds of the Kaaba
Saee is to go from the location of the Mount of Safa to the location of the Mount of Marwah seven times. From Safa to Marwah is counted as one round, thus the seventh will end at Marwah. The actual mounts of Safa and Marwah are not visible, but the locations are marked. This is in memory of Hajara and Ismaeel (PBUH).
There is only one Fard of Saee, which is to do Saee between Safa and Marwah, not some other location.
The following are the Wajibaat of Saee, if any one in not completed, then the Saee has to be repeated or Kaffara needs to be done.
- Saee should be done in-person even if a wheelchair or other aid is required
- Saee must be done after a Tawaf.
- To start the Saee from Safa and end at Marwah
- To do all the seven rounds of Saee
- To do Saee on foot if one is capable of walking
- To go all the distance from Safa to Marwah and vice versa.
Hajj Related Mistakes and Kaffara (Expiation): Damm/Fidya
There are three different forms of for Kaffara of mistakes done in Hajj, depending on the type of mistake:
- Slaughtering an animal
- Feeding the poor or giving Sadaqa
If any of the following are violated in Ihram, the Kaffara needs to be done:
- Using perfume
- Wearing garments that are tailored to the human form
- Covering the head or face
- Trimming, shaving or plucking any hair on the body
- Trimming and/or filing ones nails
- Kissing; having sexual intercourse completely invalidates the Hajj
There are two categories of violations: excused and unexcused.
Within these two categories, there are two types of violations: complete and partial
Example: An excused violation would be that if you have sustained an injury to your finger and need the have the nail removed to prevent infection. Similarly, if you clip all the nails of your hand, it would be a complete violation and if you clip some of the nails it will a partial violation.
|Kaffara Type (if multiple types of Kaffara are checked for a violation, then you have to do ONLY one based on your preference)|
- Slaughtering of animal requires that you slaughter either a sheep, goat, cow or camel.
- The minimum age requirements for the animals are that a sheep should 6 months old, a goat should be a year old, a cow should be two years old and a camel should be five years old.
- A cow or a camel can satisfy up to seven Kaffara that require slaughtering an animal
- The animals should not have any defects. Their ears, tails, noses, and teeth should be intact.
- The animals need to slaughtered within Huddod Haram (the boundary of Makkah)
- The meat must be distributed to the people who reside inside Huddod Haram and are eligible to receive Zakat.
Fasting-A kaffara by fasting consists of fasting three days. These days do not have to consecutive
Feeding the Poor or Sadaqa- The actual form of this type of Kaffara is to feed two meals of an average nature to a person who resides inside Huddod Haram and are eligible to receive Zakat. This can be done or Sadaqa of the amount of Sadaqa/Zakat-ul-Fitr can be distributed to the people who reside inside Huddod Haram and are eligible to receive Zakat.
- Arafat: A plain in Makkah where pilgrims spend the 9th of Zul-Hijja.
- Ashurul Hajj (Months of Hajj): These are the three months of Hajj (Shawwal, Zul-Qaidah, and Zul-Hijjja)
- Ayaam Nahr (Days of Slaughtering): Days from the 10th Zul-Hijja to 12th of Zul-Hijja.
- Ayaam Tashreeq (Days of Praising Allah): This period starts from the Fajr of the 9th of Zul-Hijja to the Asr of the 13th Zul-Hijja. This is the period of reciting Takbeer Tashreeq.
- Ayaam Hajj (Days of Hajj): There are the five days of Hajj (8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th, of Zul-Hijja)
- Damm: Literally means blood. This represents the slaughtering of an animal for the expiation of mistakes done during Hajj and/or Umrah. More specifically, an animal for each Wajib skipped or not performed as prescribed.
- Day of Arafat: 9th of Zul Hijja. This is the day when pilgrims stay in Arafat.
- Fard/Faraidh: These are the acts that are obligatory. If these are not done, that act is invalid and must be to be repeated.
- Hady: The animal the pilgrim sacrifices during Hajj.
- Hajar Aswad (Black Stone): This is a stone from paradise. The time it came from paradise it was white as milk, however, due to sins of children of Adam being absorbed by this stone, it has turned black.
- Hajj: Hajj is a worship in which a person, during the days of Hajj, being in the state of Ihram, goes to appointed places at appointed times and remembers Allah through designated activities (أعمال ).
- Halaq: Shaving off the hair from one’s head.
- Haram: This is the boundary defined of the city of Makkah in the Sharia. It is prohibited to hunt, cut trees, or shepherd within these boundaries.
- Hateem: This is a semi-circle touching the Kaaba. It is part of the Kaaba. When the Quraish rebuilt the Kaaba, this was left out due to the lack of Halal resources they had.
- Hill: This is the land between the boundaries of Haram and the boundaries of the Meeqat. It is called Hill as in this land those things are halal which were haram in Haram.
- Ifraad: This is one of the three types of Hajj. It is to enter into the state of Ihram to only do Hajj.
- Ihram: Ihram means making haram. When the haji makes intention for Hajj or Umrah and says the Talbiya, then at that time some Halal things become Haram.
- Istilam: Istilam is to kiss or touch the Hajar Aswad. It is also to touch, but not kiss, the Ruknai Yamani.
- Jamrat or Jamar: In Mina three places which are denoted by three pillars/walls where pebbles are thrown. The pillar/wall furthest from Masjid Kheef towards the west is called Jamar Aqaba. Rami is done on this Jamar on the 10th and on all three Jimar on the 11th and 12th.
- Kaaba: Kaaba is also known as Baitullah (House of Allah). It is shrine in the middle of Masjid Haram and is the world’s first place of worship. Angels, by the order of Allah built, the Kaaba even before the birth of Adam PBUH. Adam PBUH, Ibrahim PBUH, the Quraish, Abdullah bin Zubair, and Abdul Malik, subsequently rebuilt the Kaaba. It was also been repaired many times. This is the Qibla of Muslims and is a very high respectful place.
- Kafaara: Literally means expiation. This is achieved through the slaughtering of an animal for each mistakes done during Hajj and/or Umrah. More specifically, an animal for each Wajib skipped or not performed as prescribed.
- Maqam Ibrahim: A rock of paradise, which aided Ibrahim PBUH in building the Kaaba.
- Marwah: A mountain near Kaaba where Saee is competed.
- Masjid Kheef: Name of a well-known Masjid in Mina
- Masjid Nimra: Name of Masjid in Arafat.
- Mataaf: Place for doing Tawaf.
- Meelain Akhdarain: Green lights between Safa and Marwah where men doing Saee have to run.
- Meeqat. That place where putting on Ihram is Wajib for people entering Haram.
- Mina: In Makkah a place where Rami is done and the 8th, 10th, 11th and 12th of Zul-Hijja is spend when doing Hajj. Mina is inside boundary of haram.
- Mufrid: Person doing hajj.
- Multazim: The wall between Hajra Aswad and Kaaba’s door where it is Sunnah to make dua.
- Muzdalifah: A ground between Mina and Arafat.
- Qasar: Shortening the hair of one’s head
- Qiraan: This is one of the three types of Hajj. For Hajj Qiraan, one enters in the state of Ihram to do both Hajj and Umrah at one go. First Umrah is done, then Hajj, without getting out of the state of Ihram.
- Rami: Throwing pebbles at the Jamarat.
- Raml: Raml is to complete the first three laps/rounds of Tawaf at a fast pace.
- Ruknai Yamani: This is the Kaaba’s third corner. It faces towards Yemen.
- Saee: Saee is go from Safa to Marwah seven times. Going to from Safa to Marwah is counted as one and then from Marwah to Safe is counted as two and so on until the seventh round ends at Marwah.
- Safa: A mountain from where Saee is started from
- Takbeer Tashreeq: Saying Allahuakbar.
- Talbiyah: Talbiya is the recitation of the dua below لَبَّيْكَ اللَّهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ، لَبَّيْكَ لاَ شَرِيْكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ، إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَالنِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَالْمُلْكَ لاَشَرِيْكَ لَكَ
- Tamattu: This is one of three types of Hajj. To do this Hajj, in the Months of Hajj first a person must enter into the state of Ihram and do Umrah. Then s/he should become Halal and then enter into the state of Ihram to do Hajj.
- Tawaaf: Going around the Kaaba seven times.
- Umrah: Doing Umrah requires that a person enters into the state of Ihram and then do Tawaf around the Kaaba and than do Saee between Safa and Marwah.
- Wajib/Wajibaat: There are that acts that are necessary. If these Wajibaat are not completed, then that act needs to be repeated or a Kaafra, in the form of a Damm, needs to be completed for each Wajib not completed.